Urinalysis Test Principle

As per the American UL standard, leakage current tester is the current which is often conducted by the accessible parts of the household appliances, including capacitance coupling current. Leakage current is composed of two parts, conduction current I1 which passes the insulation resistance and displacement current I2 which passes the distributed capacitance. The capacitive reactance of the latter is Xc=1/2 fc. It is inversely proportional to the mains frequency. The current of distributed capacitance is directly proportional to the mains frequency. Therefore, the leakage current is also directly proportional to the mains frequency.

If the insulation property of a circuit or system is to be examined, this current shouldn't only include the current which flows to the earth by insulating materials or the insulating parts outside the circuit, but also have the current which flows in to the earth by capacitive components (Distributed capacitance can be considered as capacitive components.) in the circuit or system. Long wiring may produce large distribution capacity and increase leakage current. Which you cannot use will need to be paid more attention, especially in a non-grounded system.

The principle of leakage current test is actually the exact same with all the test of insulation resistance. The test of insulation resistance is actually a type of leakage current, merely shown in the form of insulation resistance. In normal leakage current test, alternating voltage is offered. Therefore, there's capacity current as part of the leakage current.

When a hipot test is being operated, we might also identify a maximum current value which is allowed to pass the measured equipment with no damage to the uppermost level of field intensity of the measured equipment (insulating materials). This maximum current value is also named as leakage current in the special occasion above. Leakage current tester can be used for the measurement of the leakage current produced when the working power (or other power) passes the insulating materials or distribution impedance. The input impedance of leakage current tester stimulates the impedance of body of a human.

Operation of Leakage Current Tester

1. Plug in the power supply and place on the power. The ability indicator is on.

2. Select power range and press the corresponding button of current.

3. Choose alarm price of leakage current.

4. Pick testing time.

5. Connect the tested equipment on the metering port, start the leakage current tester, boost the testing voltage to 1.06 times (or 1.1 times) of the rated operational voltage of the tested equipment, press the phase change switch, get the 2nd reading separately and pick the maximum leakage current value. When the switch K is connected with zero line, the data adopted by the leakage current tester is the leakage current value between the neutral line and the case. When the switch K is connected with phase line, the data is the leakage current value between the phase line and the case. It has to be noted that the leakage current values are different when the switch K is connected with zero line and when the switch K is connected with phase line. That's because the location of insulation imperfection in household appliance is random. Therefore, hipot tester ought to switch polarity by K and get the maximum data as the leakage current value of the tested appliances.

Frequently Asked Questions

    principles of elctrolyte analyzer?

    • ANSWER:
      Measurement of electrolytes is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, performed via blood testing or urinalysis. The interpretation of these values is somewhat meaningless without analysis of the clinical history, and is often impossible without parallel measurement of renal function. Electrolytes measured most often are sodium and potassium. Chloride levels are rarely measured except for arterial blood gas interpretation, as they are inherently linked to sodium levels. One important test conducted on urine is the specific gravity test to determine the occurance of electrolyte imbalance.

      Electrolytes are very important. Electrolyte balance is regulated by hormones, generally with the kidneys flushing out excess levels. In humans, electrolyte homeostasis is regulated by hormones such as antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone and parathyroid hormone. Serious electrolyte disturbances, such as dehydration and over hydration, may lead to cardiac and neurological complications, and unless they are rapidly resolved will result in a medical emergencies.

    Need Help To Pass A Drug Test Very Urgent!!!!!!?
    Hi, i dont want your crap about how doing drugs is bad and how the best way to pass is to not do them, i just want person experiences and help.

    I smoked weed on Saturday and Sunday out of a glass on glass bong, only like 1-3 hits in all and 2 hits out of a one hitter i have, well i got tested today which is Tuesday, i put some vinegar in my sample at my drug test at home but i think i put to much in because it didn't even show results. Is there anything i can use to spike the Home Made Drug test sample? Or What can i do to help increase my chances of the test saying Negative? My Mom plans to buy another test tomorrow or the next day


    • ANSWER:
      Marijuana is one of the most difficult tests to beat. It stays in your system for up to a month. If they do a hair test and not urinalysis they can cover up to 6 months; In principle acidifying the urine is a good, idea , but you would have to drink practically gallons of it. I also know of people who bring somebody else's urine, but if a person gets caught he won't get the job. Also as you may or may not know, that if you are around people who smoke pot on a regular basis your urine may also come out positive. You might have an outside chance if you say that it's people around you who smoke.

      Lastly there's a book I highly recommend to you, it was written by a former Yippie leader, Abby Hoffman. The name is Steal this Urine. It's an older paperback, but you could buy it or borrow it. It talks a lot about this issue , but just keep in mind that it was written some time ago, but much of the advise is good and it's a great read

      Good Luck to you

    Explain the chemical principles that are the chemical tests and flame tests in qualitative analysis?

    • ANSWER:
      First we need to analyze the viability of the egg monkeys in relation to the qualitative swamp halitosis. Did each melon frog emit full spectrum urinalysis? Choose two and perform hidden chemical reverse osmosis. Compare! Did the ionization of regurgitation have the same affect? Add di-ionised gleegle, with and without heat, to test your work. One should spontaneously combust. If not, rinse and repeat.

    I want to know if there is a mathematical equation I could use to predict if I will pass my weekly drug test?
    Background info

    I am in the Suboxone maintenance program at a clinic in Toronto Ontario and I submit it a Urinalysis (pee test) on a weekly basis to test primarily for Opiates. More specifically: A twelve panel test cup with both 300 ng/ml and 2000 ng/ml cutoffs. I believe that if I test positive within the range of 300 to 2000 I will not automatically fail, but the test will be sent to the lab to rule out false positives and, if a true positive is found, to find out which drug it is.

    These tests have no bearing on my continuation in the program, they only cause me embarrassment when I fail, and occasionally effects the number of carries (take home doses) that I have. The Doctor will often administer the test, take the bottle out of the room without peeling the label. Then talk to me about the past week, asking if there was any drug use. Obviously if I feel that I will pass I am not going to tell him, as he both lecture me, and potentially take away one of my carries, and at the very least not give me another carry.

    Often the reason I use opiate drugs is because I will be sent out of town for work in the middle of the week, and my take home dose days do not always coincide with these days. Since I can not go to the pharmacy those days I will often pick up opiate drugs to avoid getting sick.

    What I am trying to figure out is if there is a mathematical equation that I could use to determine how many ng of the drug remain in my system based on time elapsed, my weight, the particular drugs halflife and amount (in mg) used.

    I can provide:

    drug: Hydromorphone

    Half-life - 3 hours
    Bio-availability (intranasal) - 58%

    My weight 184 lbs.

    I have a fast metabolism and a high drug tolerance.

    Basically I need to figure out how any given amount of the drug (Eg: 30mg @ 58% bio-availability = 17.4mg) is diluted by my body (184lbs) into ng, and at which point I need to factor in half-life (before or after conversion)

    • ANSWER:
      Here is a solution which will generally over estimate the time it will take to clear a drug. I will try to find ways to improve the accuracy when I have time but for now this will have to do.

      N = No exp^-T(1/2)t where N drug in body and No is the initial amount of drug in your body T(1/2) is the half life and t is the amount of time since administration in the SAME UNITS AS T(1/2). Ie T(1/2) in days, t is days. Same for seconds, minutes, etc.

      In simper terms mathematically:

      N = No (1/2)^n where n = t / T(1/2)

      No = D x f where D is how much drug you took and f is the bio-availability by the route administered.

      Using this equation you can calculate how long until the drug reaches a certain concentration. If you know the sensitivity of your test (aka minimum concentration it can detect) then you use this for N. If you don't you can apply standard pharmacological principles and calculate that after 4 T(1/2)s you will have 1/16th of No and after 5 T(1/2)s you have 1/32th No. Most pharmacology texts consider this "no drug" left in your body.

      This method will systematically overestimate the amount of time it will take for you test negative due to the fact that drug tests are done with Urinalysis. N is a calculation of total amount of drug left in your body, you can estimate the blood concentration by dividing by your approximate blood volume.


      This will overestimate blood concentration because some of the drug in your body will be in your tissue fluid and not in your blood. Once you find the C(blood) of the drug it will be related in some way to the C(urine) of the drug such that:

      N / BV = C(blood)

      C(urine) = C(blood) x F where F is the relationship between C(blood) and C(urine)... I am unable to find a good estimate of this fraction (F) currently but will look into it further when I have time. It will probably be different for different drugs.

      Since the immuno-assays used for most drug tests at methadone clinics test for concentration of a drug in urine we know that increasing urine volume will decrease the concentration of the drug irrespective of your blood concentration. Therefore drinking lots of water prior to a drug test can help minimize C(urine) for a given C(blood).


      Despite our uncertainty about various values we know that:

      N > C(blood) > C(urine) so depending on the level of risk you are willing to take you can calculate the amount of time to reach certain risk levels.

      ABSOLUTELY NO RISK: 5 half lives (this means there is approximately no drug in your body)

      NO RISK: If N = sensitivity of the specific test used on your urine.

      PROBABLY NO RISK: If C(blood) = sensitivity of the specific test used on your urine.

      GETTING RISKIER: You estimate or determine F and use this to extrapolate the maximum dose you can take given that your test is n number of half lives away:

      C(minimum)/F = C(blood) when you will test negative, where C(minimum) is the minimum detectable urine concentration for the SPECIFIC TEST used on your urine at the clinic.

      N = C(blood) x BV which would be the amount of drug you can have in your body when you will test negative on your test.

      Since N=No (1/2)^n

      No = N / [(1/2)^n] where n was calculated by dividing the amount of time until your test by T(1/2).

      D = No / f or the maximum dose you can take by an administration route and still test negative on your test n half lives from when you take the dose. The more accurately you calculate n, the more accurate the dose will be.

      There are a lot of oversimplifications and error sources in this model but it should give you at least a rough idea of when and how you can use and still test negative on an IMMUNO-ASSAY URINALYSIS. If they use a mass spectrometer... you will not pass! Since mass-spec is expensive it is unlikely that they would but it is always a possibility. Mass-spec would probably only be used in employer drug screenings or criminal cases due to the economic barriers.

      Hope this helps. I will research further and adjust my model to be more accurate if I can.

    How do you use magic?
    How do you use magic and how do you find out if you have it?

    • ANSWER:
      If you have it? What... like there's some sort of medical test? Urinalysis maybe? I've been tested for a lot of things, but magic was never on the list.

      Using magic, however, is very easy. You can make it really complicated if you want, but the principle stays the same. It's just a wish wrapped up in a set of words and / or rituals. There's no way to make it come true, but people do the rituals anyway. Casting a spell is no different than saying a prayer or throwing a coin into water, and they all have the same success rate.

      If you're talking real actual magic, which is personally controlling unseen forces to do your bidding, forget it. Nobody can do that, no matter what ritual or incantation they try. People have been trying to do that very thing for thousands of years now, and so far nobody has had success. When people say it does work, it actually works as well as praying or the coin in the fountain. It's called pure coincidence.

    Can dogs really sense Skin Cancer?If so,how?
    There was an article in the paper about a dog sensing a lady's melanoma in her leg ,thus my doubt.

    • ANSWER:
      Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study
      Carolyn M Willis, senior research scientist1, Susannah M Church, honorary research fellow1, Claire M Guest, operations director2, W Andrew Cook, deputy chief executive2, Noel McCarthy, medical statistician3, Anthea J Bransbury, associate specialist1, Martin R T Church, honorary research fellow1, John C T Church, honorary consultant1

      1 Department of Dermatology, Amersham Hospital, Amersham HP7 0JD, 2 Hearing Dogs for Deaf People, Saunderton, Princes Risborough HP27 9NS, 3 Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Oxford OX3 7LF

      Correspondence to: C M Willis carolyn.willis@sbucks.nhs.uk


      Objective To determine whether dogs can be trained to identify people with bladder cancer on the basis of urine odour more successfully than would be expected by chance alone.
      Design Experimental, "proof of principle" study in which six dogs were trained to discriminate between urine from patients with bladder cancer and urine from diseased and healthy controls and then evaluated in tests requiring the selection of one bladder cancer urine sample from six controls.

      Participants 36 male and female patients (age range 48-90 years) presenting with new or recurrent transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (27 samples used for training; 9 used for formal testing); 108 male and female controls (diseased and healthy, age range 18-85 years 54 samples used in training; 54 used for testing).

      Main outcome measure Mean proportion of successes per dog achieved during evaluation, compared with an expected value of 1 in 7 (14%).

      Results Taken as a group, the dogs correctly selected urine from patients with bladder cancer on 22 out of 54 occasions. This gave a mean success rate of 41% (95% confidence intervals 23% to 58% under assumptions of normality, 26% to 52% using bootstrap methods), compared with 14% expected by chance alone. Multivariate analysis suggested that the dogs' capacity to recognise a characteristic bladder cancer odour was independent of other chemical aspects of the urine detectable by urinalysis.

      Conclusions Dogs can be trained to distinguish patients with bladder cancer on the basis of urine odour more successfully than would be expected by chance alone. This suggests that tumour related volatile compounds are present in urine, imparting a characteristic odour signature distinct from those associated with secondary effects of the tumour, such as bleeding, inflammation, and infection.

    a retrograde ejaculation problem (any idea)?
    How can I get rid of the sperm and the pre-ejaculate from my bladder? some people say that let them come out with urine. And that's good idea but for me it takes so much time until my bladder comes fully clean again ( about 3-5 months ) so is there any idea or any thing that you can help me with? i will be so much grateful to you : )

    • ANSWER:
      Hey buddy ! going through your query here is a reply.

      Retrograde discharge (Retrograde Ejaculation)

      Retrograde discharge happens when semen enters the bladder in place of going out through the urethra throughout discharge.

      Causes for Retrograde Ejaculation

      Retrograde discharge is phenomenal. The principle excuse for why it happens is that the bladder neck does not close. This reasons semen to go regressively into the bladder as opposed to advance out of the penis.

      Retrograde discharge might likewise be initiated by:

      1. diabetes
      2. some solutions, incorporating pills used to treat high pulse (hypertension) and some disposition adjusting medications
      3. medications or surgery to treat prostate or urethra issues

      Indications of Retrograde Ejaculation

      1. cloudy pee after climaxes
      2. little or no semen is discharged throughout discharge

      Tests for Retrograde Ejaculation

      A urinalysis that is taken soon after discharge will demonstrate a lot of sperm in the pee.

      Medication for Retrograde Ejaculation

      1. Your health awareness supplier may propose that you quit taking any medications that may reason retrograde discharge. This can make the issue go away.
      2. Retrograde discharge that is initiated by diabetes or surgery may be treated with solutions, for example pseudoephedrine or imipramine.

      Standpoint (Prognosis) of retrograde Ejaculation

      Assuming that retrograde discharge is initiated by medicines, ceasing the pill will frequently carry standard discharge. Provided that retrograde discharge is initiated by surgery or diabetes, it is regularly not correctable.

      Conceivable Complications in Retrograde Ejaculation

      The condition may cause fruitlessness. Nonetheless, semen can frequently be evacuated from the bladder and utilized throughout assistive conceptive strategies to realize a pregnancy.

      The point when to Contact a Medical Professional

      Call for an errand with your health awareness supplier provided that you are having inconvenience considering tyke or you are stressed over retrograde discharge.

      Anticipation for Retrograde Ejaculation

      Upholding exceptional glucose control might help counteract this condition in men who have diabetes. Evading pills that reason retrograde discharge will additionally averted.

      Hope you will satisfy with this reply

    Submitting EPR bullets to my supervisor and not clear on what he expects to receive, help please!?
    Ok, so I'm an A1C and I'm working on my EPR bullets to submit to my supervisor shortly. This is the first time that I've had to submit bullets, and I'm just not sure about how to go about it. First of all, I'm not sure how many bullets are typically expected-right now I have 6 pretty solid ones. My other problem is that while I feel fairly confident about most of my bullets, I just don't know about the others. As of right now I'm working odd jobs until I start my actually job, and while I've been working hard at the jobs they've assigned me to, I spend my time doing unimpressive things like laminating and posting signs, calling in work orders, collecting recycling, etc., and no matter how I word it in a bullet it just looks pathetic lol. These are some of the things I have so far;

    -Worked at CE--updated and replaced 90 FPCON signs for six buildings, maintaining security measures; communicated over 50 work orders to DPW and oversaw their execution; co-trained three incoming Airman on the duties and responsibilities of the CE staff; managed and collected recycling for three buildings; performed smoke alarm safety checks

    -Worked at Drug Demand Reduction Program--ensured specimens are collected, packaged, and transported to the drug testing laboratory in accordance with the AFI 44-120; developed and maintained appropriate statistical data; conducted inspection urinalysis testing as directed by the Drug Reduction Program Manager at least eight times per month; brief all urinalysis observers on their duties and responsibilities of observation

    -Completed Sponsorship Training in order to assist Airman joining the unit in matters such as in-processing procedures and housing, as well as provide unit information

    -Volunteered over 15 hrs to Airman's Attic--assisted customers; digitally recorded property customers acquired; reorganized shelves and interior space to make items more accessible

    --Passed Introductory Sociology/Human Resource Management and Principles of Supervision CLEPSs; earned 12 credits towards CCAF

    -Participated on the squadron soccer team

    Any feedback would be soooooooooo appreciated, thanks in advance!

    • ANSWER:
      That's pretty good. Have you done anything with your CDC yet? You should have started that at least and why haven't you started working on your real job? Are you waiting on a security clearance? How's your PT score? Any other extra curricular activities?

urinalysis test principle